Fredriksson, A., 2024 (with Sylvia Saes). Quantifying political effects in the spatial allocation of public services. (Revise & Resubmit, link)

Paper abstract: The spatial allocation of citizen-accessed public services is typically influenced by factors related to citizen demand, but also by other factors, including political considerations. We develop a method to quantify how political factors influence citizens’ spatial access to services. A regression model of the allocation of a public service is first built, using citizen demand and related variables as explanatory factors. The model fit improves once political variables are added to the model, with some part of the spatial allocation of service units being explained by the political variables. By using Operations Research methods, we then show that, had these same politically explained units instead been optimally allocated, citizen access would have improved. The effect is quantified in terms of citizen travel distance, which is one measure of welfare in spatial allocation problems. We apply the method to two different public services in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We show that, for both services, after controlling for citizen demand and related variables, and after incorporating as explanatory variables the official program objectives, there is evidence of politically induced allocations. The resulting effect for citizens is longer travel distances, on average. Interestingly, for the two different public services studied, there is a degree of similarity in which regions are underserved, rather than a case where municipalities or regions not getting one service being “compensated” by getting the other service.


Fredriksson, A., 2024. Book Review. Spectrum Auctions: Designing markets to benefit the public, industry and the economy—Geoffrey Myers (London, U.K.: LSE Press, 2023, 314 pp.). IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 43:2, 39-41. (link)

Fredriksson, A., 2020. One Stop Shops for public services: Evidence from Citizen Service Centers in Brazil. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 39, 1133-1165. (link)

Paper abstract: Citizen Service Centers are government offices where different authorities are co-located and where several public services are offered in the same physical location. The goal of implementing such One Stop Shops for public services is to solve problems with a malfunctioning government bureaucracy for frontline service delivery. In spite of reforms in at least 70 countries, however, there are few evaluations. This paper evaluates the impact of Poupatempo (“Savetime”), a Brazilian Citizen Service Center reform that has inspired similar programs in other countries. We collect data on one of the most common errands at the Brazilian bureaucracy, driver’s license renewal, and evaluate the impact of Poupatempo on the time, number of trips and payments needed to undertake the renewal, and on other variables representing transaction costs, red tape and transparency in the citizen-state interaction. Our difference-in-differences estimates indicate large reductions in the time expended by citizens and in proxies for transaction costs, but are less encouraging for the social quality of the licensing procedure, which we also evaluate. We discuss whether incentives to speed up processes prevailed where other steering instruments would have been more appropriate, and explore remedies. We also discuss limitations to establishing a true One Stop Shop.

Fredriksson, A. 2019 (with Gustavo Magalhães de Oliveira). Impact evaluation using Difference-in-Differences. RAUSP Management Journal, 54, 519-532 (special issue on Research Methods in Management). (link)

The paper aims to present the Difference-in-Differences (DiD) method in an accessible language to a broad research audience from a variety of management-related fields. We cover the main issues involved when conducting DiD studies, including the fundamentals as well as some recent developments.

Fredriksson, A., 2017. Location-Allocation of public services – Citizen access, transparency and measurement. A method and evidence from Brazil and Sweden. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 59, 1-12. (link, link to Working Paper)

Fredriksson, A., 2014. Bureaucracy intermediaries, corruption and red tape. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 256-273. (link)

Becker, T., Fredriksson, A., 2012. The European transition economies. In Mordechai E. Kreinin and Michael G. Plummer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of International Commercial Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (paper, book, review)

Fredriksson, A., 2009. Bureaucracy, informality and taxation: Essays in Development Economics and Public Finance. IIES Monograph Series No. 65, Institute for International Economic Studies. (link)


Fredriksson, A., 2020. Optimal penalties on informal firms. (link)

Paper abstract: What, if anything, should be done about the informal economy in developing countries? I study optimal penalties vis-à-vis informal firms in a simple capital accumulation model under three different government objectives: maximize formalization, maximize tax revenue from formalizing informal firms, and maximize welfare. A general conclusion, for all objectives, is that low productivity informal firms should be left alone. Higher productivity informal firms should instead face positive penalties. As the three objectives lead to differences in the range and severity of penalties towards such firms, however, the study also highlights the importance of discussing the appropriate policy objective vis-à-vis informality.


Fredriksson, A., 2016. Servicekontorens rumsliga fördelning: Kan operationsanalys bidra till en effektiv lokalisering av offentliga tjänster? Ekonomisk Debatt 44(3): 49-61. [A study of Swedish Citizen Service Centers, published in the Journal of the Swedish Economic Association.] (link)


Fredriksson, A., 2016. Poupatempo – Uma Avaliação de Impacto com o Olhar no cidadão. Boletím FIPE 427: 34-37.[A summary of some of the results of the data collection project on Citizen Service Centers in São Paulo.] (link)


Location of public services – theory and application to Citizen Service Centers in Sweden

Location of public services – theory and application to health services in Brazil

Political incentives in the spatial allocation of public services


A theoretical study of the licensing and commons models for radio spectrum management


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